By Zareena Grewal
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Additional info for Islam Is a Foreign Country: American Muslims and the Global Crisis of Authority (Nation of Nations)
To enrich the USA, to be a beautifying addition, a fit addition . . . during this plural society we name the US. 35 Like his criticisms of his coreligionists, Muhammad’s opinions of yankee racism have been fairly light; with the legislations at the part of African americans after the passing if the Civil Rights Act, Muhammad insisted that the first difficulty of their struggle opposed to racism was once now not structural inequality however the mental results of fake cognizance. 36 Muhammad’s mainstreaming efforts dramatically reoriented his African American Sunni community’s cognizance from the Muslim global to the USA. instead of the transnational ethical geography of the Muslim global as place of origin, within the past due eighties, Muhammad started to advertise a nationalistic include of yank citizenship, recasting the yank Medina as domestic instead of a diasporic group. in contrast to the revivalist immigrants of the umma associations, Muhammad’s ethical geography of the yank Medina made an extra analogy among American Muslims and the Jews and Christians who lived lower than Muslim rule, non secular minorities who have been as invested within the good fortune of the polity because the Muslim majority was once, simply as Muslims needed to absolutely put money into the USA. during this vein, Mohammed took a couple of unpopular stances, encouraging Muslims to affix the united states military and aiding the united states, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait opposed to Iraq within the Persian Gulf conflict within the nineties. even supposing his group is still the biggest black Sunni group within the US, Mohammed’s mainstreaming efforts drew the ire of Sunni immigrants and nearly all of Sunni African americans who stay way more ambivalent in regards to the US and who stay deeply invested in transnational ethical geographies. not like their transnational countercitizenship and black outsiderhood, Mohammed modeled Sunni patriotism. It used to be now not until eventually after September eleventh that umma associations led essentially by means of expert immigrants, reminiscent of ISNA, started to reflect an analogous form of explicitly patriotic non secular rhetoric, leaving behind countercitizenship narratives and their ambivalence in regards to the American mainstream on the way to advertise a countrywide instead of transnational ethical geography. As one revivalist Egyptian American preacher admonished the predominantly immigrant viewers at an ISNA convention in 2009: “Home isn't the place your grandparents are buried; house is the place your grandchildren may be buried! ”37 Such calls to reject diasporic nostalgia and embody the USA as house is a much cry from the unique non secular imaginative and prescient and ambivalent countercitizenship of the founders of umma associations reminiscent of ISNA. Fig. three. four. Warith Deen Mohammed speaks to journalists. Upon his dying in 2008, he was once memorialized as a pace-setter who introduced African americans not just to embody Sunni Islam but additionally to include their American identities. (Courtesy of Horizons) From Racial Dystopia to (Muslim) American Dream within the seventies, eighties, and nineties, expert immigrants’ critiques—of Muslim rulers and autocrats within the 3rd global, people overseas coverage, of yank racism—were framed as quintessentially Islamic evaluations.